Novi mač iz Koljana u svjetlu kontakata s nordijskim zemljama u ranom srednjem vijeku
U tekstu se raspravlja o kronološkoj i mogućoj radioničkoj pripadnosti novopronađenog ranosrednjovjekovnoga mača K-tipa iz Koljana kod Vrlike u Dalmaciji. Uz prethodni osvrt na 60-ak mačeva istoga tipa do sada pronađenih u Europi (7 u Irskoj, 17 u Norveškoj, 13 u Hrvatskoj i 24 u drugim zemljama pog...
Institute of Social Sciences IVO PILAR
|U tekstu se raspravlja o kronološkoj i mogućoj radioničkoj pripadnosti novopronađenog ranosrednjovjekovnoga mača K-tipa iz Koljana kod Vrlike u Dalmaciji. Uz prethodni osvrt na 60-ak mačeva istoga tipa do sada pronađenih u Europi (7 u Irskoj, 17 u Norveškoj, 13 u Hrvatskoj i 24 u drugim zemljama poglavito srednje Europe), iznosi se pretpostavka da je izrađen u nordijskim (vikinškim) radionicama u drugoj polovini 8. st. te da je u istočnojadransko zaleđe mogao dospjeti u vrijeme doseobe Hrvata, koja se krajem istoga stoljeća odvijala pod karolinškim nadzorom. In the past ten years, several interesting examples of weapons and military equipment have been found in the valley of the River Cetina. Taken as a whole, they display morphological and typological characteristics observed in relevant finds from the early Carolingian period. We are talking here about accidentally recovered finds: a winged iron spearhead and a bronze spur recovered from the riverbed of Cetina at Trilj, and a sword with a silver belt fitting recovered at Koljani which is the third such find from this small area near Vrlika in the Dalmatian hinterland. We can assume that the sword belonged to the inventory of a grave. The grave itself has not yet been investigated, because its site is currently at the bottom of the artificial lake of the “Peruča” hydroelectric power plant. According to the most frequently used classification, that of J. Petersen, the recently recovered sword from Koljani belongs to the K-type group. So far, there have been thirteen examples belonging to this group recovered in Croatia and the neighbouring early medieval Sclaviniae. The usual interpretation is that they are an early Carolingian legacy, or more precisely, weapons imported from workshops located in the Rhine basin at the very time that Croatians were under the influence of or in some sort of alliance with Charlemagne’s empire. The recently recovered sword from Koljani offers a subject for debate that adds to the simplified archaeological and historical picture that has been firmly etched for decades. This is so because, taking into consideration the workmanship, it could be linked with examples originating from Nordic (Viking) armouries. How such a product could have arrived in the Central Adriatic hinterland in the early medieval period is a particularly interesting question. One of the possible answers is that it was the result of trade to which the Vikings might have contributed. At the time, the Vikings, with their long and fast ships (which also sailed the large rivers of the Euro-Asian mainland), covered vast areas starting from Scandinavia and Greenland in the north west to the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the south east. Another possibility, which seems to have more historical foundation, is that such a sword possibly arrived in the area of what is now the Dalmatian hinterland at the time the Croatians arrived, at the end of the 8th century AD. How the sword might have arrived was explained in a very successful exhibition “The Croatians and the Carolingians”, that drew on written historical sources, some ten years ago.